What is Basalt?


Basalt stone, known as the first member of the natural stone family on Earth, is an igneous rock. In other words, this natural stone is formed as a result of the cooling and solidification of lava overflowing through cracks in the earth as a result of volcanic eruptions. Most of the basalt collar on Earth is indifferent plate boundaries, located in the areas of the ridge located in the middle of the oceans. The convection currents here constitute the hot rock in the mantle.

This hot rock is melting as the different boundaries are separated from each other. Molten rock is poured onto the seabed, causing the production of basalt. This type of rock, which is dark in color and fine-grained, has a composition similar to gabbro stone. The difference between gabbro and basalt is that the default stone is a fine-grained rock, and the gabbro stone is a coarse-grained rock. At the same time, after it is granulated and colored, it is laid on a hot membrane to ensure its adhesion. Thanks to this, it is possible to come across basalt stones in various spheres of our life. As one of its main features, this stone forms large columns in the form of prisms. They are mostly available in gray or black; however, due to the oxidation of iron-rich minerals in their structure to other iron oxides, it quickly turns brown or rust-red.


Where is Basalt Extracted From?



To explain that there are only three rock-forming environments on Earth; oceanic boundaries, oceanic hot spots, and mantle plumes and hot spots under land parts can be emphasized. Basalt stone, which covers an area of thousands of square kilometers in the world, also has a large number of production sites in Turkey.

Although it is mostly found in the Central Anatolia Region, the largest number of basalt enterprises are located in and around Ankara. Some provinces where there is basalt production are listed in alphabetical order as follows:


Adana, Afyonkarahisar, Ağrı, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydın, Balıkesir, Batman, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Bursa, Çanakkale, Çankırı, Çorum, Diyarbakır, Düzce, Edirne, Elazığ, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gümüşhane, Turkey, Bingöl, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaraş, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Izmir, Kırşehir, Kilis, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Antalya, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Turkey, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas, Sanliurfa And Sirnak, Turkey, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak.


In addition to Turkey, basalt is most produced in the UK, Italy, India, Germany and the United States. This natural stone, which also contributes to the national economy, stands out as one of the most exported products.


Where Is Basalt Used?



Basalt, which is a kind of lava, appears when mantle rocks begin to melt. Basalt, which is characterized as a homogeneous stone because it has the same properties in each unit, provides smooth lines and allows mostly smooth surfaces to be obtained. In addition, it is also quite resistant to weights with its hard structure that is not affected by natural conditions and its dense structure that almost never absorbs water. It is mainly preferred on tretuvar and roads. Basalt stone, which is quite difficult to wear and resistant to high pressures, is usually used in landscape applications, garden walls, sidewalks, roads as a grinding, bridges, coatings and railway ballast. Also, sometimes “aggregates”, in other words, a mixture of sand and gravel, are included in some concrete compositions as crushed stone. Due to its dense mineral structure, it is also considered a raw material in the glass industry and ceramic production. In October, basalt, which is also widely preferred in heat storage systems, forms the components of the stone wool material used in coating applications. Thanks to the stone wool in its structure, it not only provides thermal insulation but also is used as a mattress, sheet, pipe and bulk in sound insulation, acoustic regulation processes, fire safety systems. Moreover, they are cut into thin sheets and sometimes polished for floor tiles, building coverings, monuments and other stone objects. Basalt, the use of which is not limited to them, is also among the favorite preferences of decoration and decoupage. Recently, very stylish trinkets and sculptures have been produced from basalt, which is also preferred as a good gift option.


It is possible to examine the areas in which it is used as follows, by further customizing it according to its types:


Basalt Cube Stone: This stone, which is very useful because it can be cut into desired sizes, is mostly preferred in decorative applications. It is used in indoor and outdoor environments of buildings because it is compatible with both hot and cold weather conditions. In addition, it is often seen in garden and landscape applications.


Basalt Curbstone: This stone, which is in the form of a large column and shaped like a hexagonal prism, is usually found as an edge stone. It also strengthens the slabs of plaque stones by cutting them to the desired sizes. It is divided into cutting and crushing curbstones. Cutting curbs are used on roadsides while breaking curbs are preferred in garden and landscape applications.


Basalt Plaque Stone: This stone, which is found in the form of a plaque in nature, is used in the infrastructure of sewage, telephone, water and electrical systems. In addition, the type of basalt October stone, which is quite common on roads and parking lots, is produced in various sizes and sizes.


Basalt Blasting Stone: This type, which you can often find in decorative processes, is used in restaurants, cafes, houses. It provides a decor facility that highlights aesthetic details with its complex appearance and is also often preferred in modern designs that are intended to resemble historical decors. It manages to be the center of attention, especially since it does not require maintenance and painting.


Basalt Gutter Stone: The waterproof feature of this type used for transporting rain and mains water is used. Gutter stone, which is mostly used on the sides of roads and sidewalks, is also preferred in water networks.


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